Tracheophytes are called vascular plants because of the presence of vascular tissues i.e. xylem and phloem. These are the successful group of land plants. They are able to adapt the rough land habitat most successfully and amongst them the flowering plants today have dominated land habitat. The evolution of following complex vegetative and reproductive characteristics enabled the vascular plants in general and flowering plants specifically to become predominant flora of land.

Division_TracheophytaRoot, stem and leaves.

  1. Vascular systems in stems, roots and leaves.
  2. Protected sporangia, leading to the evolution of seed.
  3. Pollen tube for safe and water-independent transmission of male gamete to female gamete.
  4. Flower and fruit.
  5. Heteromorphic alternation of generation.

The tracheophytes are further sub-divided into four sub-division, psilopsida, Lycopsida, Sphenopsida and Prteropsida.