What is network standard? Discuss different types of network standards. Which organizations define these standards?

The standards are the documents that contain technical and physical specifications about the network being designed. The networks can be reliable and efficient by following certain standards.

Types of network standards

The two types of network standards are as follows:

  1. De facto standard
  2. De jure standard


  1. de facto

De facto means by tradition or by facts. These standards are developed without any formal planning. These standards come into existence due to historical developments. These standards are still being used by many organizations in the world. SNA is an example of de facto standard

  1. De Jure

De jure means according to law or regulation. These standards are developed with proper research to fulfill the requirement of data communication. The major organization to develop communication protocols and standards are as follows:

  1. American national standard institute (ANSI)
  2. Institute of electrical and electronics engineers (IEEE)
  3. International standard organization (ISO)
  4. International telecommunications union – telecommunication standards sector (itu-t)
  5. The electronic industries association (EIA)
  6. Telcordia

What is network topology? Write the names of topologies.

A network can be configured or arranged in different ways. The physical layout or arrangement of connected devices in a network is called topology. It is the shape of a network. Different network topologies are as follows:

  1. Bus topology
  2. Ring topology
  3. Star topology
  4. Tree topology
  5. Mesh topology

What is bus topology? Explain its working with diagram. Discuss its advantages and disadvantages.

What-is-network-topologyBus topology is the simplest type of network. It supports a small number of computers in bus topology, all computers or network nodes are connected to a common communication medium. This medium is often a central wire known as bus. The terminators are used at the end of a bus to absorb signals. A collision can occur in bus topology if two computers transmit data at same time. Bus topology is mostly used in peer-to peer networks.

Working of bus network

bus-networkThe sending computer sends the data and destination address through the bus. The data and address move from one computer to the other in the network. Each computer checks the address. If it matches with the address of a computer. The computer keeps the data. Otherwise the data moves to the next computer.


  1. It is simple and easy to use.
  2. It requires small length of cable to connect computers.
  3. It is less expensive.
  4. It is easy to extend a bus. It allows more computers to join network.
  5. If one node fails, it does not affect the rest of the network.


  1. It is difficult to troubleshoot.
  2. It only supports small number of computers.
  3. The network speed slows down as the number of computers increases.