Components of Network
Token Ring: it is closely associated with IBM, works on the concept of a ring network topology and a token (a kind of electronic signal). The method of controlling access to the shared network cable is called token passing.
Only one token is available on the network. When a node on the network wishes to transmit, it first captures the token, only then it can transmit data. When the node has sent its message, it releases the token back to the network. Since only one token is circulating around the network, only one device is able to access the network at a time. Thus no collision occurs but the only disadvantage is its slow data transfer rate.
ARCnet: the ARCnet (Attached Resource Computer network) has both a topology and networking technology all its own. It uses either twisted-pair wire or coaxial cable, and the star topology is informed with hubs attached to the network.
The original ARCnet protocol was very slow, but it became popular because it was inexpensive, reliable, and easy to set up and to expand. Fast ARCnet increased the transmission rate to 100 Mbits per second and includes the capability to use fiber optic cable.
- TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol / internet Protocol): TCP/IP is the protocol used by every computer on the internet. A protocol is a set of rules and procedures that defines how computer receive and transmit data over the network. Every computer on the internet must have TCP/IP configured.
- TCP/IP ensures a reliable connection between the computers communicating over the internet. It also defines a mechanism through which every computer on the internet is identified separately.
- TCP/IP software differs for different computers but it always present the same interface to the network. It does not matter if the system on the other end is a supercomputer, a mainframe, minicomputer or microcomputer; as long as it is using TCP/IP, it can send and receive data through the internet.
- ISDN(Integrated Seraries Digital Network): ISDN is a set of international communication standreds for software control of transmitting voice, video, and data simultaneously as digital signals over twisted-pair telephone lines. Basic rate ISDN provides better quality than analog connections and more reliable digital connections at higher speeds than those offered by analog connections
- DSL (Digital Subscriber Line): DLS provide high speed, digital data trandmission from homes and businesses over existing telephone lines. The exiting lines are analog and the transmission is digital, so modems are necessary with DSL technology. DSL is a popular alternative to ISDN.