Before coming to the Informal and Formal Fallacy we must be aware about argument. An argument consists of a conclusion and one or more than one premises. Conclusion is simply known as the result of any type of statement while premises are the sentences which are used to support the conclusion.
Fallacy is a type of error in any type of reasoning, an arguments, containing poor reasoning or in simple words an incorrect argument lacking soundness. This deviates from the actual facts and figures.e. being wrong about the facts.
Sometimes people themselves use fallacies in their argument just to manipulate and sometimes they themselves are not aware of what mistake they are committing.
Fallacies are defects in arguments just due to fallacy an argument become invalid and unsound.
Let’s have few examples
Fallacy can be divided into two general groups.
Informal and Formal.
An Informal fallacy is a common error, it often contain valid argument with false premises. It can be identified by analyzing the content of the argument. This type of fallacy contains errors or mistakes both in its form and its content. It is possible that an Argument having Informal Fallacy may be formally valid, but even then it is fallacious. Knowledge about Informal fallacies help in locating specific weakness in others argument as well as in your own.
Informal fallacy contains arguments from ignorance, appeal to common sense etc.
Following are Informal fallacies of relevance.
Appeal to force.When Force or threat is use in order to justify the end result/conclusion or answer.
For example. If you will not accept my result I will beat you.
Argument against Person. When person or the arguer attacks the source of argument rather than the argument itself
Example. Aslam said, people are not sincere with the country now a days
Noman answered, who are you to decide this?
Appeal to pity When the arguer tries to reach to the occlusion by evoking piety in him or her.
Example. If you will not pass me in the exams my parents will beat me a lot.
Appeal to the people.Making Appeal in such a manner to convince people to the natural desire.
Appeal to authority. Using any authority in any argument in order to support the argument, but that authority has no concern with that argument.
Example.My 5th class teacher told me that Pakistan’s atomic weapons are not in safe custody.
In this example my teacher has no specific knowledge about this field.
Appeal to Ignorance. This Fallacy is based on assumption that it is true if and only if it cannot be proven as false. Or lack of knowledge of the arguer about that specific argument.
Example. My Gardner told me that the mobile which I have is not the right choice.
Formal fallacy is known as Invalid argument. It’s a pattern of reasoning that is always wrong. Formal fallacy is generally found in deductive arguments, which are considered to be as air tight. The arguments that are not deductively valid are said it commit a formal fallacy.
All humans are mammals (premises)
All cats are mammals (premises)
All humans are cats. (Conclusion)
Both the premise are very much correct but the conclusion extracted from them is 100% wrong.In formal fallacy the premises and the pattern of the argument are correct but the conclusion which is extracted from them does not tell the reality.
All dates are fruits (premises)
3 may is a date (premises)
3 may is a fruit. (Conclusion)