1. So called Muslim Nationalism: As Pakistan movement, apparently was based on religion so after independence religious scholar tried to made Pakistan a theocratic State the totally opposite of democracy. In 1949 on the call of Moulana Shabbir Ahmed Usmani, Objectives resolution was passed. And all the major posts of the state were bounded for Muslims only. They transferred sovereignty to Allah, while democracy wants the people to be sovereign.
All the laws were to be deducted from Quran and Sunnah and even the majority of people-of-Pakistan can’t alter those laws. Hence they tried to mix democracy with Islamic system neglecting the fact that both are contrary. In a result we are still living without any ideology. We haven’t yet decided that what will be the governing ideology-of-Pakistan. With lack of ideology, the development of institutions of state and process of formation of Pakistani-nation and civilization effected badly.
With democratic system when Muslim nationalism was announced the foundation of state then all the communities living in Pakistan were demanded to be loyal with federation so that a singular nation could be formed. But in this process the local and provincial cultures were discouraged. This process laid an internal war due to the contradictions of the theory of Muslim Nationalism. Separation of East Pakistan as Bangladesh as the current freedom movements in Sindh and Balochstistan are proofs of that.
So a national reconstruction process should be started on the base of pure democracy and secularism.
2. Association with United States: When ruling class in Pakistan-lost legitimacy and power roots in people then they compensate it with associating the state-of-Pakistan with objectives of American Imperialism. This policy made Pakistan alone on international ground and even an Egyptian President named Pakistan as “tail of imperialism”. American involvements in Pakistan state enhanced to such an extent that now every political party looks toward America to gain power. Conflicts with USSR, Korea and some Arab countries in past and involvement in so called War against Terrorism, on behalf of America has caused that damages which are far more them the capability of Pakistan.
3. Political Parties: Political parties are failed to solve the problems of the country. As these parties are either Feudal or Bourgeois in nature and origin and thus are not interested in power sharing with people and in political training of their workers. Politics without ethics is a horse race and Pakistan is presenting an excellent example of race course. Political parties are inherited and their policies revolve around will of personalities neither on people nor on ideology.
State institutions are getting more powerful day by day. Feudal and Bourgeois in cooperation with imperialism are busy in exploitation. This exploitation is not only economical but also political and ethical. Religious forces habitually are with them. But class difference in Pakistan which is getting greater day by day is an only hope for a complete change in situation. People the center of power will remove all these conservative forces and a new Pakistan will appeared based on Socialistic ideology.