What is database? Explain with the help of an example. Which facilities are provided by database system?

Database: A database is a collection of logically related data sets or files. Each file may contain different type of information and are used fro specific purposes. The files may be organized in different ways to meet different processing and retrieval requirements of the users.


A bank may have separate files for the clients as follows:

  • Saving Accounts
  • Current Accounts
  • Automobile Loan
  • Personal Loan
  • Clients Information etc.

The client database of bank will consist of the records from all of the above files. The data of any client can be added, retrieved or updated by using database programs.

Facilities of Database System

A database system normaly provides the following facilities to the user:

  • Adding new files to database
  • Inserting new data in existing files
  • Retrieving data from existing files
  • Updating data in existing files
  • Deleting data from existing files
  • Removing existing files from database

Q. Define database system. What are four major components of database systems? Write in details.

Database System

A database system is a collection of data as well as programs required to manage that data. A database system is a computerized record-keeping system. The main purpose of this system is to maintain data and provide it to the user when it is required.

Components of database systems

The four major components of database system are as follows:

1.     Data

Data is the most important component of database system. Data is a collection of facts stored in the database. The basic purpose of a database system is to store, maintain and process data for the user.


Figure 1.3: Major Components of Database System

2.     Hardware

the physical components of a computer system are called hardware. The hardware is used to perform different tasks such as input, storage and processing.

Some important hardwarecomponents are as follows:

  •     Secondary storage
  •     I/Odevices
  •     Processors
  •     Main memory

3.     Software

Software is a collection of programs used by computer within a database system. The most important software is DBMS itself. It uses three type of software to enable the data base system work properly. These are as follows:

  •     Operating system software: it manages all hardware components. It also enables all other software to run on the computer.
  •     DBMS Software: ti manages the database in the database system.
  •     Application programs and utilities: the application programmers write application programs to access data from database.

4.     Personnel

the people related to the database system are called personnel. different types of persons in a database system are as follows:

  • Database Administrators: they manage DBMS’s use and ensure that database is functioning properly. they are responsible of the whole database system. they authorize access to database and monitor the use and working of database system.
  • Application Programmers: the application programmers write application programs to access data from database.
  •     End Users: end users are the people who use application programs to perform different tasks on database. They inclide clerks, managers and directors etc.