Computer in Business: The Business must understand and adapt in the new source of competitive advantage by connecting to core competencies and customer interaction on global scale, global market place. In the global business world , global interaction is very important . In every organization there are major business processes that provide the critical tasks such that customer bills, analyzing sales of various products in different locations etc. In business, computers are used as given below.

  • Marketing:  Marketing applications provide information about the organization’s products, its distribution system, its advertising and personal selling activities , and its pricing strategies . Marketing applications help managers to develop strategies that combine the four major elements of marketing: Product, Promotion, Place, and Price.
  • Stock Exchanges: Stock markets around the world are in transition. On some trading floors, paper is disappearing. In fact, the trading floor itself is disappearing in some places because many stock markets lunched the computerized system that makes it possible for stockbrokers to do all their trading electronically. Brokers interconnected through a data communications network submit and receive bids using their computer workstations or interconnected computer display screens, where brokers match buyers with sellers, so that neither trading floor nor slips of paper are necessary.
  • Banks:Computerized banking have provided several benefits such as save the time and convenience for customer. International banking and the abilities to handle trading in multiple currencies are critical for international trade. The cheques are read by MICR (Magnetic Ink Character Reader, a device used to allow the data on cheques to be read by machines) see in fig 4.2. Bank use mainframe computer to maintain their customer accounts by dealing with the transaction generated as a result of withdrawals and deposits. Some banks are used to operate a network of ATMs(Automated Teller Machine) see in figure 4.3. Although some international retail purchasing can be done by giving a credit card number.
    magnetic_ink_character_reader

    Figure 4.2

    Automated_Teller_Machine

    Figure 4.3

  • Departmental Store:People at the store level, cashiers enter sales data into sale terminals by waving a bar code scanner across a package’s bar-coded prices and stock numbers. Bar codes are read by bar –code readers, photoelectric scanners that translate the bar code symbols into digital forms(see in figure4.4). The price of a particular item is set within the store’s computer and appears on the sales-clerk’s point of sale terminal and on our receipt. Store and department manager who received report of store and department sales and inventory levels are indirect end users.

    photo_electric_scanners

    Fig 4.4

Records of sales are input to the store’s computer and used for  accounting , restocking store inventory , and weeding out products that sell well. A Security VCR (video cassette recorder) is widely used in department stories and other  locations where asthetics are a priority. It is virtually impossible to tell where the camera is pointed , which makes it difficult for would-be camera avoiders to stay out of the camera’s view range; that are equipped with a camera , and lens can be augmented with dummy cameras.

VCRs use the tapes , hook up the same way, and have all of the standard features of today’s consumer  VCRs. Most importantly, they are just as easy to use. Security cameras are everywhere these days and the reason is quite clear: there is simply no better  way to monitor home or business operations and ensure safety.

Office Automation: Office Automation (OA)  refers to the movement toward automating office tasks. An office where workers performs different tasks. The management and administrative tasks performed in an office five general categories of activities like decision-making , data manipulation, document handling , communication, and storage. Many offices have used advance computer technologies to perform various tasks in an office system such as for document management system, message-handling system, and office support systems.

  1. Document Management System (DMS):  DMS include word processing, desktop, publishing, reporting , image processing, and archival storage applications.  Word processing enable documents to be created and edited electronically as well as help to produce high quality memos, letters, proposals, reports, new letters and brochures etc., which are used to send business community . Desktop publishing enables to make documents in attractive form by the use of photos , artwork, graphical illustrations etc. Spreadsheet is software package used to create a table of columns and rows used by people responsible for tracking revenues, expenses, profits, loses , statistical , mathematical and logical processing etc. Reprographics is the process of reproducing multiple copies of a document . Images processing allow document to be scanned and stored in images oriented database.
  2. Message-handling systems: It enables to send messages or documents from one location to other location through facsimile (fax) , electronic mail (e-mail), Voice Mail etc.
  3. Office Support Systems enable: It to coordinate and manage the activities of work group. Groupware and desktop organizers are some examples of office support systems.