What is tree topology? Explain its working with diagram. Discuss its advantages and disadvantages.

A tree topology combines the characteristics of bus and star topologies. It consists of different groups of computers attached in star topology. The groups are then connected to a bus backbone cable. Tree topology is used for the expansion of an existing network.

what is tree topology


Advantages of a tree topology

  1. It provides point-to-point wiring for individual segments.
  2. It is supported by several hardware and software vendors.

Disadvantages of a tree topology

  1. Overall length of each segment is limited by the type of cabling used.
  2. If the backbone line breaks, the entire segment goes down.
  3. It is more difficult to configure and wire than other topologies.

What is mesh topology? Explain its working with diagram. Discuss its advantages and disadvantages.

In a mesh topology, every device in the network is physically connected to every other device in the network. A message can be sent on different possible paths from source to destination. Mesh topology provides improved performance and reliability. Mesh networks are not used much in local area networks. It is mostly used in wide area networks.

What is mesh topology



  1. The use of dedicated link guarantees that each connection can carry its own data load. It eliminates traffic problem.
  2. If one link becomes unusable, it does not harm the entire system.
  3. It is easy to troubleshoot.


  1. A full mesh network can be very expensive.
  2. It is difficult to install and reconfigure.

Explain devices used to connect networks of computers.

Different devices to connect networks of computer are as follows:

  1. Router                  2.    Gateway                      3.    Bridges


A router is a device that connects multiple networks that use similar or different protocols. It manages the best route between any two communication networks. It consists of hardware and software. The hardware can be a network server or a separate computer. The software includes operating system and routing protocol.

Routers are used when several networks are connected together. They can connect networks of different countries. They transfer data in less time.



Gateway is a device that connects two or more networks with different types of protocols. Two different types of networks require a gateway to communicate with each other. It receives data from one network and converts it according to the protocol of other network. For example, the computers on a LAN require gateway to access the internet.


Bridge is a device that connects two network segments. It is used to connect similar types of networks. When a bridge receives a signal, it determines the segment where the signal should be sent. It reads the addresses of sending and receiving computers. If both computes are in the same segment, bridge does not pass the signal to the other segment. It reduces network traffic and increases network performance.