How to Architecture Computer System – Describe von Neumann and his team proposed a design of stored program computer. Program and data are stored in computer memory according to this design. The computer reads the instructions one by one and executes hem. It is very simple design. It has proved to be very powerful and general-purpose. Ti is the basis of most modern computer of today.

Explain the architecture of computer system. Which components are included in the architecture of modern stored program machine?

Architecture Computer System

A computer is a combination of various components. These components perform different functions. All components work together and communicate with one another. The way in which these components are connected with one another is called computer architecture.

Different components of computer architecture are as follows:

  1. Control Unit

Control unit is an important component of CPU. It acts like a supervisor of computer. It controls all activities of computer. It performs the following operations:

  1. It fetches instruction from main memory.
  2. Ti interprets the instruction to find what operation is to be performed.
  3. It controls the execution of instruction.
  1. ALU (arithmetic and logic unit)

ALU is a part of CPU. Actual execution of instructions takes place in this part. All arithmetic and logical operations are performed in ALU. It consists of two units:

  1. Arithmetic unit
  2. Logic unit
  3. Arithmetic unit

Arithmetic unit of ALU performs basic arithmetic functions like addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.

  1. Logic Unit

Logic unit of ALU performs logical operations like comparing two data items to find which data item is greater than, equal to or less than the other.


Figure: architecture of main components of computer.

  1. Main memory

Main memory is an important component of computer system. It is used to store program and data that are being executed. It is also known as working area of a computer system.

  1. I/O Unit

I/O unit controls processor’s communication with peripheral devices such as monitor, disk drive and printer connected to the computer system.

  1. Bus Interconnection

Bus interconnection is also an important component of a computer system. A computer system consists of CPU, main memory and I/O units. These components have to be connected to transfer data from one component to another. The use of buses to connect different components is known as bus interconnection.