Hardware Devices

following are the main hardware devices in any computer system:

  1. input devices i.e. Keyboards, mouse, Microphones etc.
  2. output devices i.e. Printers, speakers, monitors etc.
  3. main memory comprising of RAM and ROM.
  4. I/O Device i.e. Driver, Terminals, Touch Screen etc.
  5. Secondary Memory i.e. Hard disk, Floppy disk, Compact disk, Tape etc.
  6. Inter-connectors i.e. Cables, Ports, Buses etc.
  7. Networking Devices i.e. Modem, Bridge, Router etc.

Software Classification

Software can be classified into following main two categories:

  1. System Software
  2. Application Software

System software: System software is used to control the usage and allocation of different hardware components and enables the other application programs to execute. For example,

  1. Operating Systems
  2. Utility Programs (Backup/Restore)
  3. Drivers

The system software may be a combination of many such programs

Application Software: application software is the software that has been developed to solve a specific problem or to provide audio, video, or multimedia entertainment to the users. It may be categorized as under

  1. Custom-built
  2. Packaged

Custom-built software: this is the software that is designed and developed for a particular customer. The custom-built software is discussed in detail in the section 1.6 (systems development).

Packaged software: this software is the kind of off-the-shelf programs or components, developed for sale to the potential software developers/users for their use. The examples are: MS-Word, MS-Power point, Personal Oracle etc. few of these are discussed in the coming chapters.