Discuss different functions of operating systemOperating system performs the following functions:

1. Booting: Booting is a process of starting the computer operating system starts the computer to work. It checks the computer and makes it ready to work.

2. Memory Management

It is also an important function of operating system. The memory cannot be managed without operating system. Different programs and data execute in memory at one time. if there is no operating system, the programs may mix with each other. The system will not work properly.

3. Loading and Execution

A program is loaded in the memory before it can be executed. Operating system provides the facility to load programs in memory easily and then execute it.

4. Data security

Data is an important part of computer system. The operating system protects the data stored on the computer from illegal use, modification or deletion.

5. Disk Management

Operating system manages the disk space. It manages the stored files and folders in a proper way.

6. Process Management

CPU can perform one task at one time. if there are many tasks, operating system decides which task should get the CPU.

7. Device Controlling

operating system also controls all devices attached to computer. The hardware devices are controlled with the help of small software called device drivers.

8. Printing controlling

Operating system also controls printing function. It a user issues two print commands at a time, it does not mix data of these files and prints them separately.

9. Providing interface

It is used in order that user interface acts with a computer mutually. User interface controls how you input data and instruction and how information is displayed on screen. The operating system offers two types of the interface to the user:

1. Graphical-line interface: It interacts with of visual environment to communicate with the computer. It uses windows, icons, menus and other graphical objects to issues commands.

2. Command-line interface: it provides an interface to communicate with the computer by typing commands.


 What are computer languages? Describe high-level and low-level languages.

A set of words and symbols used to write programs is called programming language. It is a means of communication between a user and the computer. These languages are used to develop computer software. Different programming languages are used to write different types of programs.

Type of programming languages

There are two types of computer programming languages:

  1. Low-level languages
  2. High-level languages

1. Low level languages

Low-level languages are near to computer hardware and far from human languages. The two low-level languages are machine language and assembly language.

  1. machine language

A type of language in which instructions are written in binary form is called machine language. It is the only language that is directly understood by the computer. It is the fundamental language of the computer.

  1. Assembly language

Assembly language is a low-level language. It is one step higher than machine language. In assembly language, symbols are used instead of binary code. These symbols are called mnemonics. For example sub instruction is used to subtract two numbers. Assembly language is also called symbolic language.

2. High level languages

A type of language that is close to human languages is called high level language. High-level languages are easy to understand. Instructions of these languages are written in English-like words such as input and print etc.


  1. BASIC
  3. COBOL
  4. C/C++
  5. JAVA