List out some differences between SRAM and DRAM.

SRAM
DRAM
  1. It is faster that DRAM.
  1. It is slower than SRAM.
  1. It is more expensive.
  1. It is less expensive.
  1. It does not need to be power- refreshed.
  1. It has to be refreshed after each read operation.
  1. It utilizes less power.
  1. It utilizes more power.

 

 List out some difference between RAM and ROM.

RAM

ROM

  1. Ram is temporary memory.
  1. ROM is permanent memory.
  1. The data in RAM can be changed or deleted.
  1. The instructions written in ROM cannot be changed or deleted
  1. Instructions in Ram change continuously as different programs are executed and new data is processed.
  1. It is not possible to write new information or instructions in ROM.

 

  1. RAM is a volatile memory.
  1. ROM is non-volatile memory.
  1. The instruction is written into the RAM at the time of execution.
  1. The instructions written into ROM at manufacturing time.

List out some differences between PROM and EPROM.

1. It is a programmable memory. 1. It is electronically programmable memory.
2. The user can write instructions on PROM only once. 2. The user can write instructions on EPROM many times.
3. The instructions written by the user cannot be erased from PROM. 3. The instructions written by the user can be erased from EPROM.
4. If there is an error while writing on PROM, it becomes unusable. 4. If there is an error while writing on EPROM, it can still be used again.
5. It provides less usability as instructions are written only once. 5. It provides more usability as instructions are written many times.

What is cache memory?

A cache (pronounced “cash”) is a small and very fast memory. It is designed to speed up the transfer of data and instructions. It is faster than RAM. The data and instructions that are most recently or most frequently used by CPU are stored in cache memory.

What is cache memory

The data and instructions is stored in cache.  The next time the CPU needs that data or instructions, it first looks in cache. It the required data is found there, it is retrieved from cache memory instead of main memory. It speeds up the working CPU.

What is bus interconnection? Explain different types of buses.

A computer system consists of different devices such as CPU, main memory and I/O devices. These devices are connected to an internal communication channel of the computer system to transfer data between these devices. the internal communication channel of the computer system is called bus interconnection.

What-is-bus-interconnection

Computer bus

A bus consists of set of parallel lines. It is used to transfer data between different components of the computer. One line of bus can transfer bit at a time.

The capacity of computer bus depends on the number of data lines in it. A bus with 16 lines can carry 16 bits or 2 bytes of data at a time. A bus with 32 lines can carry 32 bits or 4 bytes of data at a time. The amount of data that a bus can be carry at one time is called bus width.

Types of buses

Different types of buses as follows: 

1. system  buses

System buses are used to connect the components of computer such as CPU and main memory. System buses part of motherboard. Computes normally have system bus of 70-100 lines. Different types of system buses are as follows:

1 Data Buses, 2 Address Bus, 3 Control Bus

2. Expansion Buses

Expansion bus is used to connect CPU with peripheral devices such as mouse, keyboard printer, modem and scanner etc.