Define Windows Operating System

An operating system is system software that provides an interface for user to interact with the computer . It controls the execution of all types of programs. A computer cannot do anything without operating system. Operating system must be installed on every computer.

Windows Operating System

An operating system is responsible to allocate system resources. These resources include memory processor, disk space, and peripheral devices such as monitors, printers and modems etc.

Define a user interface. Discuss different types of operating systems on the basis of user interaction.

User interface

A user interface is used to interact with computer. It controls how the user enters data and instructions and how information appears on screen. Different types of operating systems on the basis of user interaction are:

1. Graphical user interface operating system.

A type of user interface in which the user communicates with the operating system by using a visual environment is called graphical user interface. It consists of windows, menus, icons and pointers. The user can select commands from menus and select icons by using a pointing device like mouse. Mouse is used frequently in graphical user interfaces.

Examples

Examples of GUI operating system are windows, Linux and Solaris.

Characteristics

Some important characteristics of GUI operating system are as follows:

  1. Graphical interface – graphical interface increases the understanding of users. They easily understand the environment.
  2. Easy to use: GUI uses buttons, menus and icons etc. these are easy to use because the user does not have to remember the commands.
  3. Easy to learn: GUI is easier to learn. The options are self-explanatory.
  4. Attractive: the color, size and fonts of the graphical environment make it more colorful and attractive.

2. Command-line operating system

A type of user interface in which the user communicates with the operating system by typing commands with keyboard is called command line interface. Each command activates a program in the operating system. The command line interface is difficult because the user has to remember the commands.

Examples

Examples of command line operating system are dos and UNIX.

How graphical user operating system differs from command-line operating system?

The difference between command-line and GUI operating system is as follows:

Topic

Command line OS

GUI Os

Ease It is difficult to use. It is easier to use.
Control It provides more control of file system and operating system It provides less control of file system and operating system
Multitasking Some command line environments provide multitasking but it is difficult to view multiple things on one screen. GUI enables a user to easily view and manipulate multiple things at once.
Speed Command line users need to use keyboards to execute command. An advanced command line interface user can perform something faster than an advance GUI user. GUI uses the mouse for most of the command. It is much slower than working in a command line environment.
Scripting A command line interface enables a user to easily script a sequence of commands to perform a task or execute a program. GUI does not provide the facility to script a sequence of command.