Following are some major problems of philosophy. I have just given an outline of the questions with which the premier problem deals.
1. The existence of a world external to a perceiver.
This problem is the major clash or difference between two large schools of thoughts is philosophy, first who states that universe has its independent existence external to the mind or perceiver. In their own view, a mind just gets the reflections from material world in the form of sense data and this reflection is called idea. This school of thoughts is called materialism. Materialists believe on senses to be source of knowledge and say that universal is eternal. They deny existence of any entity that is metaphysical. While the other school of thoughts named idealism states that senses are not capable of being a source of knowledge. We should use reason to get knowledge. Reason is not something separate from mind, so our mind can get knowledge of universe without senses. Thus when they focused on mind to be a source of knowledge then only that thing is existent that can be perceived by mind. Materialism holds opinion of objectivity while idealism of subjectivity.
2. The nature of space and time.
Space and time is a major problem of philosophy till ancient times. What is space? Space is the totality of surroundings in the whole universe where objects can get place or in which object can exist. Can any object exist outside the space? Is space is eternal or was created by God or any great incident? Is space separate then objects or isn’t? Time is a calculation of motion by any object? What is the relation between space and time? Was time prior to space or vice versa? Is time real or unreal? Is there any starting of time or not? Either the movement of time is linear or circular? Can time be reversed?
3. The knowability of an absolute, transcendent being.
This question is also a basic question of metaphysics. Can there be any absolute? What’s the nature of that absolute? If that absolute is transcendent, then how can that absolute connect to us or how can we connect to that? Can we have knowledge of absolute considering it transcendental as well? Can that absolute have knowledge of universe as well as human beings or not? If not, then why? If has then how? Has absolute a general or specified knowledge?
4. The nature of experiment.
What an experiment is? Can we get perfect knowledge by experiment or not? What should be the standard of experiment? Is there any reality beyond experiment? Can our social values be justified by experiment or not? Should we trust on experiment or not? What is the relation between the results and the material to be experimented? Can we have an alternate of experiment?
5. The “direction” of history.
What the history is? Is history just a flow of time? Is this flow linear so that society can never be reversed? Is this flow circular so that societies reach at identical points in different phases of history? Has history some goal or purpose? History creates the man or man creates the history? Was history present before man or not?
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Category: General Philosophy