16. Describe De Facto standard.
De facto means by tradition or by facts. These standards are developed without any formal planning. These standards come into existence due to historical developments. These standards are still being used by the organizations all over the world.
17.Descibe De Jure standard.
De jure according to law or regulation. These are the standards which have been properly approved by networks governing body. These are developed with proper research and design to fulfill the requirement of data communication.
18. Distinguish between de facto and de jure standards.
De facto standards are developed without any formal planning. De jure standards are properly approved by networks governing body. These are developed with research and design to fulfill the requirement of data communication. Many de facto standards become de jure. Standards when analyzed and improved by industry standards associations.
19.Name different types of LAN topologies.
Three types of LAN topologies are topology, ring topology, tree topology and mesh topology.
20. define the term network topology.
The physical layout or the way in which network connections are made is called a topology. It refers especially to locations of computers and how the cable refers especially to locations of computers and how the cable runs between them. Bus, Ring and star are examples of network topologies.
21. what is Bus topology?
Bus topology is the simplest type of network. It supports a small number of computers. In the topology, all computers connected to a common communication medium. This medium is often a central wire called bus. It is mostly used in peer-to-peer networks.
22.How does star topology work?
All computers in the star topology are connected with central device called hub. The sending computer sends the data to hub. The hub sends data to the receiving computer. Each computer in star network communicates with a central hub. If hub fails, the whole network becomes useless.
Star topology is the best LAN topology. Scalability and reliability of star topology makes it the best topology than others. It is easier to troubleshoot than other topologies.
24. Distinguish among star, ring and bus topologies.
In the star network topology, each computer is directly connected to every other computer on the network. In a ring network topology, all computer from a ring. In the bus network topology, all computers connected to a common communication medium called bus. A star topology includes a central device or hub to connect all computers together. Ring topology uses token passing and bus topology uses Ethernet.
25. Differentiate between a bus topology and a star topology.
A bus topology usually uses one or more pieces of cable to from a signal line or bus. A star topology includes a central device or hub to connect all computers together. Star topology is more expensive to implement than bus topology.
26. what is Ring topology?
In this topology, each computer is connected to the next computers with the last one connected to the first. This topology forms a circle. All computers in the ring. In this network topology, all computers are connected to a common communication medium called bus. Ring topology is difficult to troubleshoot. The speed of ring topology is higher than bus topology.
27. differentiate between bus and ring topology.
In a ring network topology, all computer from a ring. In a bus network topology, all computers are connected to a common communication medium called bus. Ring topology is difficult to troubleshoot but bus topology is easy to troubleshoot. The speed of ring topology is higher than bus topology.
28. define the term token.
A short message that travels around the communication medium is called token. Token is used to send and receive data over a network.
29. Indentify three devises that pass message between networks.
Three devices that pass message between networks include bridges, gateway and routers.
30. State the purpose of repeater.
Repeater is a device that is used to boost the signal. A Every communication media can transmit signal to a limited distance. Signals have been amplified in order to be transmitted further. Repeaters are used to transmit signal beyond the limit of communication media.
31. State the purpose of bridges.
Bridge is a device that connects two network segments. It is used to connect similar type of networks. A bridge reduces network traffic and increases network performance.
32. state the purpose of router.
Router is a device that connects two network using similar or different protocols. It manages the best route between any two-communications network. Router is used when several networks are connected together.
33. what are gateways?
Gateway is a device that connects two or more networks with different types of protocols. Two different types of networks require a gateway to communicate with each other. For example, the computer on a LAN require gateway to access the internet.
34. what is local area network (LAN)?
LAN is the most common type of network. LAN stands for local Area Network. It covers a small area. Most LANs are used to connect computer in a signal building or group of buildings. Hundreds thousands of computer may be connected through LAN.
35. write some common uses of LANs.
LAN or local Area Network is commonly used to interconnect computer and other peripheral device in an office, a building or student laboratory.
36. list different computer of LAN.
Different computers of LAN are communication media, network. Interface card, bridge, router and gateway.
37. what is the use of network interface card?
It is abbreviated as NIC. It connects each computer to the wiring in the network. It is a circuit board that fits expansion slot. It handles sending, receiving and error checking of data transmission.
Category: Computer & IT